“And she being with child cried, travailing in birth, and pained to be delivered.” (Rev 12:2 KJV)
Many see the child as Jesus. This view would require chapter 12 to be past events which interrupts the sequences of the wrath of God to tell us a history that can only be symbolic and doesn’t fit with the rest of the book or with any historical accounts of the life of Jesus.
Some have suggested that the child is the Church, but the Church doesn’t begin in the book of Revelation. The Church began on the day of Pentecost in Acts 2 and chapter 12 doesn’t fit with the historical birth of the Church.
Another possibility is the 144,000. This fits with Isaiah in his description of the man child and a nation being brought forth at once.
“6 A voice of noise from the city, a voice from the temple, a voice of the LORD that rendereth recompence to his enemies.
7 Before she travailed, she brought forth; before her pain came, she was delivered of a man child.
8 Who hath heard such a thing? who hath seen such things? Shall the earth be made to bring forth in one day? or shall a nation be born at once? for as soon as Zion travailed, she brought forth her children.”
(Isa 66:6-8 KJV)
The 144,000 come from Israel and are alive during this time. They are seen in heaven throughout the last three and a half years, meaning they are raptured in the middle of the week.
“And I looked, and, lo, a Lamb stood on the mount Sion, and with him an hundred forty and four thousand, having his Father’s name written in their foreheads.
2 And I heard a voice from heaven, as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of a great thunder: and I heard the voice of harpers harping with their harps:
3 And they sung as it were a new song before the throne, and before the four beasts, and the elders: and no man could learn that song but the hundred and forty and four thousand, which were redeemed from the earth.
4 These are they which were not defiled with women; for they are virgins. These are they which follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth. These were redeemed from among men, being the firstfruits unto God and to the Lamb.
5 And in their mouth was found no guile: for they are without fault before the throne of God.”
(Rev 14:1-5 KJV)
This explanation follows with the symbolism in Isaiah and completes the history of the 144,000, showing how they were caught up to heaven.